Innovation and Research helps us strive for new methods and even better results. Reuniwatt is regularly publishing scientific papers during the proceedings of international conferences and welcomes the exchange with fellow researchers in meteorology, remote sensing and image processing.



Featured papers

The importance of solar forecasting for hybrid systems

Sky-Imager Forecasting for Improved Management of a Hybrid Photovoltaic-Diesel System

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Quality assessment of our worlwide satellite-based irradiance estimation tool

Real-time solar irradiance retrieval from satellite data: quality assessment of an operational tool using five satellites

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Full list of publications

Have a look at our publications, sorted by research topics:

Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) or surface solar irradiance (SSI) is a key weather and climate parameter that drives interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, including radiative, hydrological, and other land surface processes. The GHI can fluctuate strongly as a consequence of passing clouds. Consequently, hour-scale cloud cover forecasting is useful for solar energy management and also for any other application requiring cloud cover information at a local scale. This project aims at advancing the state of the art in the field of global satellite-based GHI estimation and forecasting, and cloud cover forecasting.

  • Polo, J., Fernández-Peruchena, C., Salamalikis, V., Mazorra-Aguiar, L., Turpin, M., Martín-Pomares, L., Kazantzidis, A., Blanc, P., Remund, J. (2020). Benchmarking on improvement and site-adaptation techniques for modeled solar radiation datasets. Solar Energy, 201, 469-479.
  • Turpin M., Lallemand C., Lefèfre M., Kurzrock F., Schmutz N., Geographic Information System for the analysis and forecast of spatio-temporal configurations of cloud occurrences, NWCSAF Users Workshop 2020, 10-12 March 2020, Madrid, Spain.
  • Turpin M., Grosselin L., Castro Cárdenas J.F., David M., Site adaptation to improve GHI accuracy assessed by satellite. ISES Solar World Congress (SWC), November 2019, Santiago, Chile.
  • Lefèvre M., Cros S., Saint-Drenan Y-M., Meirink J. F., Schroedter-Homscheidt M., Deneke H., Turpin M., Stengel M., Applying the Heliosat-4 method to four different cloud property databases for the estimation of the surface downwelling short wave irradiation, EMS Annual meeting 2019, European Conference for Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 9-13 September 2019, Lyngby, Denmark.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Lallemand C., Souchard de Lavoreille H., Kurzrock F., Satellite-based cloud cover detection and tracking for solar irradiance forecasting, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2019, 7-12 April 2019, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 21, pp.EGU2019-14784, 2019, Geophysical Research Abstracts.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Aillaud P., Lallemand C., Real-time solar irradiance retrieval from satellite data: quality assessment of an operational tool using five satellites, 6th International Conference Energy & Meteorology, 24-27 June 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Turpin M., Cros S., Lallemand C., Monchalin M., Kurzrock F., Intraday cloud cover forecasting using geostationary meteorological satellite images, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 10-14, 2018, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Roussel, G., Liandrat, O., Cros, S., Turpin, M., Rainjonneau, S., Qualification of a new short-term cloud forecasting method for the optimization of Earth observation satellite programs. In Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXIII (Vol. 10786, p. 107860P). International Society for Optics and Photonics, October 2018, Berlin, Germany.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Lallemand C., Guérin A., Solar irradiance and variability forecasting using Himawari-8 satellite images, 5th International Conference Energy & Meteorology, 22-24 May 2018, Shanghai, China.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Le Guillou F., Providing intraday solar irradiance forecasts before the sunrise: satellite-based night cloud index retrieval and forecast, EMS Annual meeting 2017, European Conference for Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 4-8 September 2017, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., De Roubaix M., Schmutz N., An autoregressive algorithm of solar irradiance forecasting in Reunion Island: First benefits of Meteosat-8 over Indian Ocean, Eumetsat Meteorological Satellite Conference 2017, 2-6 October 2017, Rome, Italy.
  • Cros S., Lallemand C., Turpin M., Wald L., Using SEVIRI cloud time-series to assess the orbits number of LEO optical satellites for land mapping without cloud contamination, EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference 2017, 2-6 October 2017, Rome, Italy.
  • Cros S., Huet L., Buessler E., Turpin M., Intraday solar irradiance forecasting using day and night satellite data: benefits for the PV power trading, 4th International Conference Energy & Meteorology, 27–29 June 2017, Bari, Italy.
  • Cros S., Buessler E., Le Guillou F., Turpin M., Country Scale Solar Irradiance Forecasting for PV Power Trading, 7th Solar Integration Workshop – International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, October 24-25 2017, Berlin, Germany.
  • Cros S., Rémy P., Madec S., Schmutz N., Design of a double-layer cloud motion vector field using cloud top height from SAF-NWC for solar irradiance forecasting, 2016 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, September 26-20 2016, Darmstadt, Germany.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Turpin M., Pineau J.-F., Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 12-16, 2016, San Francisco, USA.
  • Cros S., Deroubaix M., Turpin M., Jeanty P., Satellite-based solar irradiance assessment and forecasting in tropical insular areas, 16th European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting & & 11th European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC), 12–16 September 2016, Trieste, Italy.
  • Lorenz E., Kühnert J., Heinemann D., Nielsen K. P., Remund J., Müller S.C., Cros S., Comparison of irradiance forecasts based on numerical weather prediction models with different spatio-temporal resolutions, In Proceedings of the 31st European PV Solar Energy Conference, 14-18 September 2015, Hamburg, Germany.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Verspieren Q., Lallemand C., Schmutz N., Pignolet G., Mapping surface solar irradiance over Japan and Australia using MTSAT-2 and MODIS, 30th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 4-10 July 2015, Kobe-Hyogo, Japan.
  • Cros S., Turpin M., Lallemand C., Verspieren Q., Schmutz N., Soleksat: a flexible solar irradiance forecasting tool using satellite images and geographic web-services., 3rd International Conference for Energy & Meteorology, 23-26 June 2015, Boulder, CO, USA.
  • Cros S., Thomas R., Turpin M., Lallemand C., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Intraday solar energy forecasting using cloud motion observation from satellite combined with WRF irradiance forecasts, 15th European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting & 12th European European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), September 7-11 2015, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Hamard I., Catry T., Richard P-E., Cros S., Liandrat O., Révillion C., Schmutz N., Photovoltaic plant mapping in Reunion Island from very high resolution optical remote sensing: the benefit of Pléiades imagery, Pléiades Days, April 1-3 2014, Toulouse, France.
  • Cros S., Sébastien N., Liandrat O., Schmutz N., Cloud pattern prediction from geostationary meteorological satellite images for solar energy forecasting, In Proceedings of SPIE – Remote Sensing Conference, 22-25 September 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Sébastien N., Jolivet S., Schmutz N., Solar energy forecasting using Meteosat Second Generation Optimal Cloud Analysis and cloud motion vectors derivation from MSG HRV channel, In Proceedings of the 2014 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, 22-26 September 2014, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Cros S., Jolivet S., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Using Satellite Data for Intraday Solar Energy Forecasts: Benchmarks of Two Cloud Trajectory Retrieval Techniques, In Proceedings of the 29th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 22 – 26 September 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Cros, S., Liandrat, O., Sébastien, N., & Schmutz, N. (2014, July). Extracting cloud motion vectors from satellite images for solar power forecasting. In Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International (pp. 4123-4126).
  • Cros S., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Using meteorological satellite data for photovoltaic production intra-day forecast, International Conference for Energy Meteorology. 25-28 June 2013, Toulouse, France.
  • Cros S., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Photovoltaic production forecast: the significant role of the meteorological satellites, 13th EMS Annual Meeting & 11th European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 09 – 13 September 2013, Reading, United Kingdom.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Voyant C., Schmutz N., Comparison of clear-sky models performance for a photovoltaic energy production forecasting tool, 13th EMS Annual Meeting & 11th European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 09 – 13 September 2013, Reading, United Kingdom.
In contrast to sky imagers that operate in the visible range, Reuniwatt’s patented IR sky imager allows to observe the cloud cover 24/7 with a stable and unprecedented accuracy. Day and night observation and forecasting of the cloud cover is useful for several research applications, such as small-scale weather modelling, long-term records of local processes for climate change studies or clear sky event notifications. Diverse societal applications are also concerned: minute-scale solar power production forecasting, air-traffic management, ground-satellite communications, etc..

  • Baidar S., Bonin T.A., Choukulkar A., Brewer W.A., Pichugina Y.L., Banta R.M., Lantz K., Sedlar J., Sauvage L., Liandrat O., Angevine W., Kenyon J., Olson J., Turner D.D., Doppler wind lidar observations of shallow cumulus clouds, 100th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, January 12-16, 2020, Boston, USA.
  • Roussel G., Liandrat O., Boudreault L.-E., Cros S., Sauvage L., Cloud detection and cloud base height retrieval using a ground thermal-infrared all sky imager, International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, 20 – 24 May 2019, Toulouse, France.
  • Roussel G., Liandrat O., Boudreault L-E., Cros S., Kurzrock F., Cloud base height retrieval from a ground-based thermal infrared all-sky imager, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 10-14, 2018, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Liandrat O., Braun A., Buessler E., Lafuma M., Cros S., Gomez A., Boudreault L-E., Sky-Imager Forecasting for Improved Management of a Hybrid Photovoltaic-Diesel System, 3rd International Hybrid Power Systems Workshops, 8-9 May 2018, Tenerife, Spain.
  • Buessler E., Braun A., Liandrat O., Boudreault L-E., Cros S., Optimising the fuel consumption of a simulated hybrid photovoltaic-Diesel generator using solar irradiance forecast from a thermal infrared sky camera, 5th International Conference Energy & Meteorology, 22-24 May 2018, Shanghai, China.
  • Liandrat O., Cros S., Braun A., Saint-Antonin L., Decroix J., Schmutz N., Cloud cover forecast from a ground-based all sky infrared thermal camera, Proc. SPIE 10424, Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXII, 104240B (20 October 2017); doi: 10.1117/12.2278636
  • Cros S., Liandrat, Braun A., Schmutz N., Very short-term solar power forecasting using a thermal infrared camera, 4th International Conference Energy & Meteorology, 27–29 June 2017, Bari, Italy.
Depending on the meteorological conditions, the power production of a photovoltaic (PV) power plant is subject to strong variability and ramp events caused by passing clouds. Minute-scale PV forecasting is a useful tool to grid operators for power plant management. Sky imagers operating in the visible range allow day-time forecasting of solar irradiance, PV production, and ramp events. In this project we evaluate the forecasts performed using Reuniwatt’s SkyCam Vision, a ground-based sky imager observing clouds and providing solar irradiance forecasts used for plant control. For example, the ignition control of diesel gensets can optimize fuel savings thanks to forecast integration which are assessed from hybrid PV-Diesel plant control simulations.

  • Boudreault L.-E., Liandrat O., Buessler E., Schmutz N., Fuel Consumption Decrease in Hybrid-Power Systems Using PV Power Monitoring and Forecast Solution, 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 9-13 September 2019, Marseille, France.
  • Boudreault L.-E., Kurzrock F., Liandrat O., Roussel G., Cros S., Performance evaluation metrics for very short-term PV forecasting, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2019, 7-12 April 2019, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 21, pp.EGU2019-17324, 2019, Geophysical Research Abstracts.
  • Nitche N., Trombe P-J., Cros S., Using cloud fraction derived from all-sky camera to improve beam solar irradiance forecasting by time-series modelling, 14th European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting & 10th European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC), 6 -10 October 2014, Prague, Czech Republic.
Many research and societal applications such as surface solar irradiance assessment and forecasting require accurate short-term cloudiness forecasts at kilometre and hourly scales. Limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have the potential to provide such forecasts by simulating clouds at high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the forecast performance during the first 24–48 hours is strongly influenced by the accuracy of the cloud and thermodynamic analyses in the initial conditions. This project aims at improving NWP based cloud cover forecasts, focussing on limited-area models (LAMs), and geostationary satellite data assimilation.

  • Kurzrock, F., 2019. Assimilation de données satellitaires pour la prévision numérique météorologique régionale appliquée à la prévision du rayonnement solaire du sol (Doctoral dissertation). Université de La Réunion.
  • Kurzrock F., Nguyen H., Sauer J., Cros S., Chane Ming F., Linguet L., Lajoie G., Forecasting of solar irradiance at Reunion Island using numerical weather prediction models, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2019, 7-12 April 2019, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 21, pp.EGU2019-12642, 2019, Geophysical Research Abstracts.
  • Kurzrock, F., Nguyen, H., Sauer, J., Chane Ming, F., Cros, S., Smith Jr., W. L., Minnis, P., Palikonda, R., Jones, T. A., Lallemand, C., Linguet, L., Lajoie, G. (2019). Evaluation of WRF-DART (ARW v3.9.1.1 and DART Manhattan release) multiphase cloud water path assimilation for short-term solar irradiance forecasting in a tropical environment. Geoscientific Model Development, 12, 3939–3954. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-3939-2019
  • Kurzrock F., Nguyen H., Sauer J., Cros S., Chane-Ming F., Linguet L., Lajoie G., Multi-Phase Cloud Water Path Assimilation Using WRF-DART for Short-Term Solar Irradiance Forecasting in the South-West Indian Ocean, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 10-14, 2018, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Kurzrock, F., Cros, S., Chane-Ming, F., Otkin, J. A., Hutt, A., Linguet, L., Lajoie, G., Potthast, R. (2018). A review of the use of geostationary satellite observations in regional-scale models for short-term cloud forecasting. Meteorologische Zeitschrift Vol. 27 No 4(2018), p.227-298. doi:10.1127/metz/2018/0904
  • Kurzrock F., Cros S., Potthast R., Meteosat-8 radiance assimilation for solar irradiance forecasting using COSMO-KENDA over Reunion Island, EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference 2017, 2-6 October 2017, Rome, Italy.
  • Kurzrock F., Cros S., Chane-Ming F., Linguet L., Potthast R., Lajoie G., Improving short-term irradiance forecasts in the tropics with ensemble data assimilation in limited-area models using Meteosat-8 IODC observations, EMS Annual meeting 2017, European Conference for Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 4-8 September 2017, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Kurzrock F., Cros S., Sébastien N., Chane-Ming F., Linguet L., Potthast R., Lajoie G., The use of satellite data assimilation methods in regional NWP for solar irradiance forecasting, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016, Apr 2016, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 18, pp.EGU2016-15821-1, 2016, Geophysical Research Abstracts.
  • Kurzrock F., Cros S., Chane-Ming F., Potthast R., Linguet L., Lajoie G., Satellite Data Assimilation in Regional Numerical Weather Prediction as a Key for Better Cloud Cover Forecasts in Tropical Environments, In Proceedings of the 32th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 20-24 June 2016, Munich, Germany.
  • Kurzrock F., Cros S., Chane-Ming F., Potthast R., Linguet L., Lajoie G., Enhanced solar power forecasting in the tropics using satellite data assimilation, International Conference on Earth Observations and Societal Impacts 2016, June 26-28, Keelung, Taïwan.
  • Sébastien N., Zanchetta P., Huet L., Nitche N., Cros S., Schmutz N., Day-ahead solar radiation forecasting using GFS and artificial neural networks, 15th European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting & 12th European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), September 7-11 2015, Sofia, Bulgaria.
  • Diagne, M., David, M., Boland, J., Schmutz, N., Lauret, P. (2014), Post-processing of solar irradiance forecasts from WRF model at Reunion Island”, Solar Energy, 105, 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2014.03.016
  • Lauret P., Diagne M-H., David M., A neural network post-processing approach to improving NWP solar radiation forecasts. ISES Solar World Congress (SWC), November 2013, Cancun, Mexico.
  • Jolivet S., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Combining NWP and expert system as a decision-making tool for photovoltaic production forecasting. International Conference for Energy Meteorology, 25-28 June 2013, Toulouse, France.
  • Diagne M-H., David M., Boland J., Schmutz N., Lauret P., Post-processing of solar irradiance forecasts from WRF model at Reunion Island. ISES Solar World Congress (SWC), November 2013, Cancun, Mexico.
  • Cadet, J.-M., Portafaix, T., Bencherif, H., Lamy, K., Brogniez, C., Auriol, F., Metzger, J.-M., Boudreault, L.-E., Wright, C. Y. (2020). Inter-Comparison Campaign of Solar UVR Instruments under Clear Sky Conditions at Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 2867. doi:10.3390/ijerph17082867
  • Mathe J., Miolane N., Sébastien N., Lequeux J., PVNet: A LRCN Architecture for Spatio-Temporal Photovoltaic Power Forecasting from Numerical Weather Prediction, Climate Change: How Can AI Help?, ICML 2019 Workshop, June 14, 2019, Long Beach, California, USA.
  • Sébastien N., Buessler E., Chaintreau E., Cros S., PV Integration and Storage Optimization for a Solar Farm on a Mall Rooftop in Reunion Island, 7th Solar Integration Workshop – International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, October 24-25 2017, Berlin, Germany.
  • Révillion, C., Peillet S., Cros S., Sébastien N., Brou T., Development of an operational tool for early detection of fire with new Indian Ocean Data Coverage Meteosat-8, Eumetsat Meteorological Conference 2017, 2-6 October 2017, Roma, Italy.
  • Lallemand C., Turpin M., Cros S., Combination of satellite imagery and ground sensors to improve surface solar estimation: the e-space monitoring project, International Conference for Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial, August 16-18 2017, Boston, USA.
  • Huet L., Intra-day and Day-ahead Forecasting for Energy Traders on European Markets, UVIG Forecasting Workshop and Tutorial – Applying Meteorology in Power System Planning and Operations, June 20-22 2017, Atlanta, GA, USA.
  • Sébastien N., Lallemand C., Cros S., Kurzrock F., Schmutz N., Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens, European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016, Apr 2016, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 18, pp.EGU2016-16482, 2016, Geophysical Research Abstracts.
  • Cros S., Buessler E., Huet L., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., The benefits of intraday solar irradiance forecasting to adjust the day-ahead scheduled PV power, 5th Solar Integration Workshop – International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, October 19-20 2015, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Trombe P.-J. Cros S., David M., Huet L., Lauret P., Schmutz N., Short-Term Forecasting of Solar Irradiance: a Multiscale Approach, In Proceedings of the 29th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 22-26 September 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Cros S., Sébastien N., Liandrat O., Jolivet S., Schmutz N., Solar power forecasting for a massive and secure injection of photovoltaics on the grid, 4th Solar Integration Workshop – International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, 10-11 November 2014, Berlin, Germany.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Schmutz N., Advantages and drawbacks of a statistical clear-sky model: a case study with photovoltaic power production data, 14th European Meteorological Society (EMS) Annual Meeting & 10th European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC), 6 -10 October 2014, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Cros S., Bertin C., Lalire S., Schmutz N., PV Production Forecasts in a Tropical Environment: Cloud Regimes Identification in Reunion Island Using a Ground-Based Cloud Infrared Radiometer, In Proceedings of the 29th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 22 – 26 September 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Diagne M., David M., Lauret L., Boland J., Schmutz N., Review of solar irradiance forecasting methods and a proposition for small-scale insular grids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 27(0):65 – 76, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.042
  • David M., Ramahatana Andriamasomanana F.H., Liandrat O., Spatial and temporal variability of PV output in an insular grid: Case of Reunion Island, ISES Solar World Congress (SWC), November 2013, Cancun, Mexico.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Sébastien N., Schmutz N., Voyant C., Clear Sky Models Assessment for an Operational PV Production Forecasting Solution, In Proceedings of the 28th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 30th September – 4th October 2013, Paris, France.
  • Cros S., Liandrat O., Schmutz N., Classification of typical meteorological days for the solar radiation forecast in a tropical environment, Second Workshop on Industry & Practices for Forecasting, WIPFOR’13, 5-7 June 2013, Paris, France.
  • Lauret P., Rodler A., Muselli M., Diagne M., David M., Voyant C., A bayesian committee model approach to forecasting global solar radiation. In Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Forum 2012 (WREF 2012), Denver, USA, May 2012.
  • Diagne M., David M., Lauret P., Boland J., Solar irradiation forecasting: state-of-the-art and proposition for future developments for small-scale insular grids. In Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Forum 2012 (WREF 2012), May 2012, Denver, USA.
  • David M., Diagne H-J., Lauret P., Outputs and error indicators for solar forecasting models. In Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Forum 2012 (WREF 2012), Denver, USA, May 2012.

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